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Gilthill Primary School

Writing

Writing Progression

 

Writing is very important to us here at Gilthill. We celebrate the children’s writing achievements by awarding them with a writing certificate each time they progress to the next stage in their writing journey. The writing certificates linked to each year group are as follows: 

 

Writing Certificates 

Reception- SPARKS 1,2,3 

Year 1- FIRE 1,2,3 

Year 2- EARTH 1,2,3 

Year 3- NATURE 1,2,3 

Year 4- WATER 1,2,3 

Year 5- AIR 1,2,3 

Year 6- SPACE 1,2,3 

 

When assessing the children, teachers will use their judgement based on the National Curriculum statements below. This will be a best fit and children may or may not be secure in every area.  

 

National Curriculum Expectations 

 

Early Years Foundation Stage 

By the end of Reception, children at the expected level of development will: 

  • Write recognisable letters, most of which are correctly formed; 

  • Spell words by identifying sounds in them and representing the sounds with a letter or letters; 

  • Write simple phrases and sentences that can be read by others. 

 

 

Year 1 

By the end of Year 1, children at the expected level of development will: 

Transcription 

  • spell: 

  • words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught 

  • common exception words 

  • the days of the week 

  • name the letters of the alphabet: 

  • naming the letters of the alphabet in order 

  • using letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound 

  • add prefixes and suffixes: 

  • using the spelling rule for adding –s or –es as the plural marker for nouns and the third person singular marker for verbs 

  • using the prefix un– 

  • using –ing, –ed, –er and –est where no change is needed in the spelling of root words [for example, helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest] 

  • apply simple spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English appendix 1 

  • write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far 

 

Handwriting 

  • sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly 

  • begin to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place 

  • form capital letters 

  • form digits 0-9 

  • understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’ (ie letters that are formed in similar ways) and to practise these 

 

Composition 

  • write sentences by: 

  • saying out loud what they are going to write about 

  • composing a sentence orally before writing it 

  • sequencing sentences to form short narratives 

  • re-reading what they have written to check that it makes sense 

  • discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils 

  • read their writing aloud, clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher 

 

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation 

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by: 

  • leaving spaces between words 

  • joining words and joining clauses using ‘and’ 

  • beginning to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark 

  • using a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun ‘I’ 

  • learning the grammar for year 1 in English appendix 2 

  • use the grammatical terminology in English English appendix 2 in discussing their writing 

 

 

Year 2 

By the end of Year 2, children at the expected level of development will be able to: 

Transcription 

  • spell by: 

  • segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly 

  • learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which 1 or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones 

  • learning to spell common exception words 

  • learning to spell more words with contracted forms 

  • learning the possessive apostrophe (singular) [for example, the girl’s book] 

  • distinguishing between homophones and near-homophones 

  • add suffixes to spell longer words including –ment, –ness, –ful, –less, –ly 

  • apply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English appendix 1 

  • write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far 

 

Handwriting 

  • form lower-case letters of the correct size relative to one another 

  • start using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left un-joined 

  • write capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower-case letters 

  • use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters 

 

Composition 

  • develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by: 

  • writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional) 

  • writing about real events 

  • writing poetry 

  • writing for different purposes 

  • consider what they are going to write before beginning by: 

  • planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about 

  • writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary 

  • encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence 

  • make simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing by: 

  • evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupils 

  • rereading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form 

  • proofreading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation (for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly) 

  • read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear 

 

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation 

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by: 

  • learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly - see English appendix 2, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and the possessive (singular) 

  • learn how to use: 

  • sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command 

  • expanded noun phrases to describe and specify [for example, the blue butterfly] 

  • the present and past tenses correctly and consistently, including the progressive form 

  • subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but) 

  • the grammar for year 2 in English appendix 2 

  • some features of written Standard English 

  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 in discussing their writing 

 

 

Years 3 & 4 

By the end of Year 4, children at the expected level of development will be able to: 

Transcription 

  • use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them - see English appendix 1 

  • spell further homophones 

  • spell words that are often misspelt - see English appendix 1 

  • place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals [for example, girls’, boys’] and in words with irregular plurals [for example, children’s] 

  • use the first 2 or 3 letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary 

  • write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far 

 

Handwriting 

  • use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined 

  • increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting, [for example, by ensuring that the downstrokes of letters are parallel and equidistant, and that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch] 

 

Composition 

  • plan their writing by: 

  • discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar 

  • discussing and recording ideas 

  • draft and write by: 

  • composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures English appendix 2 

  • organising paragraphs around a theme 

  • in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot 

  • in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings] 

  • evaluate and edit by: 

  • assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements 

  • proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences 

  • proofread for spelling and punctuation errors 

  • read their own writing aloud to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear 

 

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation 

develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by: 

  • extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including: when, if, because, although 

  • using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense 

  • choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition 

  • using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause 

  • using fronted adverbials 

  • learning the grammar for years 3 and 4 in English appendix 2 

  • indicate grammatical and other features by: 

  • using commas after fronted adverbials 

  • indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns 

  • using and punctuating direct speech 

  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading 

 

Years 5 & 6 

By the end of Year 6, children at the expected level of development will be able to: 

Transcription 

  • use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidance for adding them 

  • spell some words with ‘silent’ letters [for example, knight, psalm, solemn] 

  • continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused 

  • use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in English appendix 1 

  • use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words 

  • use the first 3 or 4 letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary 

  • use a thesaurus 

 

Handwriting 

  • write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed by: 

  • choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters 

  • choosing the writing implement that is best suited for a task 

 

Composition 

  • plan their writing by: 

  • identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own 

  • noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary 

  • in writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed 

  • draft and write by: 

  • selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning 

  • in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action 

  • précising longer passages 

  • using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs 

  • using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining] 

  • evaluate and edit by: 

  • assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing 

  • proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning 

  • ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing 

  • ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register 

  • proofread for spelling and punctuation errors 

  • perform their own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume, and movement so that meaning is clear 

 

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation 

  • develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English appendix 2 by: 

  • recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms 

  • using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence 

  • using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause 

  • using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely 

  • using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility 

  • using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (ie omitted) relative pronoun 

  • learning the grammar for years 5 and 6 in English appendix 2 

  • indicate grammatical and other features by: 

  • using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing 

  • using hyphens to avoid ambiguity 

  • using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis 

  • using semicolons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses 

  • using a colon to introduce a list 

  • punctuating bullet points consistently 

  • use and understand the grammatical terminology in English appendix 2 accurately and appropriately in discussing their writing and reading 

 

 

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